Jumat, 27 Juni 2014

TUGAS SOFTSKILL TOEFL READING

Glass fibers are extremely strong for their weight, they are stronger than steel. They are made by forcing molten glass through tiny holes called spinnerets. As many as four hundred spinnerets are placed together, and threads of glass much thinner than human hairs are drawn off at great speed-mieles of threads per minute. As they speed along, the threads are coated thinly with a type of glue and twisted into yarn. The glass fibers are used with plastics to make boats and car bodies. They are also woven into heavy cloth for window draperies and into strong belts for making tires stronger.
A special kind of glass fiber is causing a revolution in communications. A signal of light can be made to travel along the fiber for very long distances. By changing the quality of the light, many messages can be sent at once along one strand of glass.new office building are being “wired” with glass fibers as they are built. The glass fiber will be used to connect telephones and computers in ways that not long ago were either impossible or too expensive.
Glass wool traps air in a thick, light blankets of fibers. This blanket in then put into walls and ceilings to keep warm air in during the winter and cool air in during the summer.
To make glas wool, molten glass is fed into a spinning drum with many holes in it. As the glass threads stream out of the holes, they are forced downward by a blast of hot air and through a spray of glues. The threads are then further blown about to mic them up as they fall in a thick mat on a moving belt.
The glass we see through and drink out of has many, many other uses besides the ones described here.
1. What was the author’s main purpose in wtiting the article?
a. To inform you how s[ecial kinds of glass are made and used
b. To persuade you to investigate the many uses of glass beyond those mentioned in the article
c. To inform you about the strength of glass fiber
d. To inform you that glue is used to hold strands of glass together
2. The word “special” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to:
a. Distinct among others of kind
b. Additional
c. Common
d. Species
3. Glass fiber are made by forcing molten glass through:
a. Spinners
b. Spiderets
c. Spinnerets
d. Spinets
4. The word changing in the second paragraph could best be replaced by the word:
a. Altering
b. Boring
c. Bringing
d. Doing
5. What are glass fibers woven into cloth for?
a. Draperies
b. Cars and boats
c. Glasses
d. Glue
6. The word fed in the fourth paragraph means:
a. To give food to
b. To minister to
c. To support
d. To supply
7. The word they in the second sentence of the first paragraph refers to:
a. Human hair
b. Weight
c. Glass fibers
d. Yarn
8. The word it in the fourth paragraph refers to:
a. Molten glass
b. Glass wool
c. Spinning drum
d. Holes
9. The following sentence would best complete which paragraph? “this improvement in technology is expected to continue.”
a. Paragraph 1
b. Paragraph 2
c. Paragraph 3
d. Paragraph 4
10. A signal of what can be made to travel along fiber for very long distances?
a. Heat
b. Wave
c. Wool
d. Light
Kunci jawaban
1. A
2. A
3. C
4. A
5. A
6. D
7. C
8. C
9. B
10. D




sumber http://fckzryo.wordpress.com/2012/05/01/soal-reading/

Selasa, 20 Mei 2014

BAHASA INGGRIS BISNIS "STRUKTUR TOEFL"


TOEFL GRAMMAR STUCTURE 

      Basic Sentences Stucture
In general, there was no significant difference between the structure of English sentences with Indonesian, where a sentence is built upon four main components, namely.
Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Complement (C) + Modifier (M)
Example :
We studied grammar last week
We + studied + grammar + last week
S + V + C + M
1.      SUBJECT
         is the agent of sentence in the active voice
         is thing/person that performs or responsible for the action of a sentence 
         normally precedes the verb
example :
         They didn’t understand that language
The subject can be seen from the question who or what is doing the action of a sentence.
2.      VERB
Verb is the action of a sentence. Verb phrase: auxilaries combination with the main verb.
Example :
         I am learning English (am = auxilary, learning = main verb)
3.      COMPLEMENT
         Usually a noun or noun phrase
         usually found after the verb in the active sentence
         complement to answer the question what or whom

example :
         Sarijon bought a cake yesterday
o    What did Sarijon buy yesterday?  –> a cake.

4.      MODIFIER

         Modifier describes the time, place, or manner of an action or actions
         The most common form of the modifier is a propositional phrase (group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun.
 Preposition = on, out, under, behind, etc ...
          Modifier answer the questions when, where, or how

Example :
         John bought a book at a book fair
o    Where did John buy a book? –> at a book fair
B.     Parallel Structure
Parallelism means that the words used in a series or group that should have the same form as grammar. When we use words or phrases that are connected by a chain, then it must be the same shape as grammar. Consider the following example:
         Terry likes swimming and to dive. (False - not parallel)
          Terry likes swimming and diving. (True - parallel)
          Terry likes to swim and (to) dive. (True - parallel)
          I'm taking history, math, and chemical. (False - Chemical not a noun)
          I'm taking history, math, and chemistry
Example problem :
Identify and correct the mistakes in parallel structure in the following sentences
1.      I swept the yard, weeded the garden and washed the clothes.
2.      James decided to get up early, practice some yoga and eat  healthy foods.
3.      Although I trained hard, practiced every day and listened  to my trainer, I never won a tournament.
4.      I wish he would listen to me, take my advice and stop smoking.
5.      He is an articulate, intelligent and thoughtful  speaker
C.    Comparative Adjectives
When talking about the two objects, we can compare and see the differences as well similarities between the two objects. Maybe it has the same thing on one side and the difference on the other side. To compare the difference between the two objects we use comparative adjectives.
Adjectives with two syllables
If the adjective has two or more syllables, we add more before the adjective. example:
         This book is more expensive than that book.
         This picture is more beautiful.
However, there are many exceptions to the rule of one / two syllables it.
Some words with 2 syllables have properties similar to words that have 1 syllable. example:
         This is Easier – True
         This is more easy - not really
          This is Simpler – True
         This is more simple - not true
And some adjectives can use both comparative form. example:
         Clever - cleverer - more clever: These are all correct
         Quiet - quieter - more quiet: These are all correct.
No exceptions can be learned through the rules, the best way to learn is to learn it one by one.
Example problems :
1.      The Nile river is longer than the Amazon.
2.      I’m taller than Yuri but shorter than Miko.
3.      They’re more handsome than us, but we’re smarter than them.
4.      This book bag is more expensive than that bag.
5.      This newspaper is better than that newspaper.
D.    Conditional Clauses
Conditional (sentence presupposition) explains that an activity contrary to other activities. The most common conditional is Real and Unreal Conditonal Conditonal, sometimes called if-clauses. Real Conditional (often also referred to as Conditional Type I) which describes mengandai-if in accordance with the facts.

Unreal Conditional (often also referred to as Conditional Type II) which describes the supposition that no real or imagined. There is also a 3rd Conditional often called the Conditional Type III, is used as a regret that happened in the past and zero conditionals, used to express something that is definitely true.

Note: If the clause "if" is placed at the beginning of a sentence, we must use the "coma". Conversely, if the clause "if" is behind, then there should be no comma
Conditional or modality has 3 forms:
1.         Future Conditional (Conditional Type 1) This assumption states that something might happen in the future or now, if the terms / certain conditions are met.
Type 1 Conditional formula:
+ Subject + If + subject + present simple modals (will, can, may, must) V1 (simple form)
example: If have money I will buy a new car
Simple If + Subject + ... + subject + present simple-present
example: If he has enough time, John usually walks to school.
If + Subject + ... + command simple present form
example: If you go to the post office, please mail this letter for me!
2.         Unreal Present (Conditional Type 2) This assumption states something contrary to what exists or happens now.
+ If + subject + subject + simple past modals (would, could, might) V1 (Simple Form)
example: If I had time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend
(I do not have time so I could not go)
He would tell you about it if he were here
(He would say if he were here, that because she's not here, he did not say Because he is not here he does not tell you about it.)
* For the if-clause in this form only to be "were" is used for all subjects.
if the conditional type 2 can be removed is by using pattern inversion:
Were + subject + Adj / Noun + capital + subject (would, could, might) + V1
example: Were I John I would not forgive you.
(if only I was the john I will not forgive you, in fact I not john so I forgive you / I'm not John so I forgive you).
He could hug me, if he were here. (She may hug me, if he's here). The fact is: he can not hug me, Because, he is not here.
3. Unreal Past (Conditional Type 3)
This assumption states something contrary to what has happened (past).
Type 3 Conditional formula:
+ If + Subject + Past Perfect ... subject modals (would, could, might) have + V3
            Example :
1.  If we had known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
(if only we knew you were there, we had sent a letter to you;
which means that we do not send the letter because we do not know you're there / I did not know that you were there so I did not write you a letter.
2.  He would tell you about it if he were here.
3.  If he did not speak so quickly intervening, you could understand him.
           Form inversion (without the "IF") for this pattern:
Had + subject + V3 ... subject + modals (would, could, might) + have V3
           inverse sentence above when written into:
          Had we known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
          without changing the meaning or significance.
Example Problems :
1. If it was not so cloudy, we would plan on having the fair outside
2. If she would have remembered  to advance her clock one hour, she wouldn’t    have been late for work
3.  If I were rich, I would go to Canada to learn English.
4. You should pass this easy exam easily if you have studied hard
E. Noun Clauses
Noun clause is a clause (ie subject and verb) is used as a noun. Noun clause in the sentence is generally used as a subject and an object sentences.
Noun clause can be preceded by:
         Question word or relative pronoun question either single word or phrase:
 Single question word (ie when, how, what, ect.).
o Question word + determiner / noun / adjective / adverb.
o Question word + infinitive.
          CONJUNCTION (i.e. Whether and if).
          That or the fact that.
So the pattern of the noun clause is:

Question word/conjunction/that + subject + verb +  ..…

A.  Noun clauses beginning with Question words
In How to Address Questions already discussed about the use of question words either in making information questions and in making embedded questions. Embedded questions are noun clause. In this section are given additional examples to refresh your memory.

Refresh your memory.
1.      Single question words.
example:
1.      Where she is now is still unknown.
2.      When they arrive is still uncertain.
3.      I know what you did last summer and I still know what you did last summer are two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt. Note: in this sentence, noun clause what you did last summer became the object of I know and I still know, and once combined with: are two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt, a compound subject of the sentence.
Noun clause can be placed at the beginning of the sentence (as subject) or as an object. If you want to change the position of the subject noun clause object sentence into a sentence, it is usually necessary pronoun or a slight modification of the word. The above example becomes:
1.      It is still unknown where she is now.
2.      Do you know when they arrive?
3.      Two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt are I know what you did last summer and I still know what you did last summer. Because the title of movies, noun clause what you did last summer does not need to be rotated position.
NOTE :
a.       Clause question preceded by certain words (ie when, Whenever, where) can also function as an adverbial clause.
example:
1.      I was reading a book when the phone rang.
2.      I went to where I and my ex-girlfriend had been last weekend.
b.      Clause is preceded by the words specific question (ie who, Whom, Whose + noun) can also function as an adjective clause. In this case, the question is actually a relative pronoun. Well, do not be too confused by the term. Important that you understand the pattern / structure of the sentence. But, if you are curious, please read the adjective clauses topic.
example:
1.      I think you Whom Mr. Dodi was looking for. (I guess you (people) who pack Dodi were looking for earlier).
 
2. Question words + ever / soever
Except how, at the end of question words can be added ever or soever Whenever = whensoever, whatever = whatsoever, and so on. Meaning here ever or soever the same, ie only / no, stay combined with a question word in front of him. Meanwhile, how + ever be however (ie adverb or also called a transition word meaning yet / even if it is) is not included in this category.
Example :
1.      We will accept whatever you want us to do. (We will accept / do whatever you want us to do).
2.      Whoever can melt her feeling is a very lucky guy. (melt = melt). Be careful: guy (pronounced gae) = men, while gay (read gei) = fag = fag.
3.      She has agreed to wherever the man would bring her. (He has agreed to take him wherever he goes). Note: in speaking (informal), preposition (in this case to, etc.) Is usually placed at the end of the sentence. She has agreed wherever the man would bring her to.

3. Question nouns + words
      Question words + nouns are often used, among others: what time (time), what day   (what day), what time (time), what kind (what kind), what type (what type), Whose + nouns (ie Whose car, Whose book, ect.), and so on.
Example:
1.      I can not remember what day we will take the exam.

4. Question adjectives + words
+ Question words are frequently used adjectives such as: how long (how long / long),   how far (how     much), how old (how old / Age), ect.
Example :
1.      Man! She still looks young. Do you know how old she actually is?

5. Question words + determiners.
Determiners + Question words often used is: how many (how many) and how much (how many). Remember: how many followed by plural nouns, whereas how much followed by uncountable nouns.
Example :
1.       Is there any correlation between how good he or she is in English and how many books he or she has?

6. Question words + adverbs
+ Question words are frequently used adverbs are: how Often (how often), how many times (how many times) ect.
Example :
2.       I do not want my parents to know how many times I have left school early. (leave school early = absent).

7. Question words + infinitives
If the question words immediately followed by infinitives, the invinitives implies shouldatau can / could. Note that the subject after question words omitted.
Example :
1.       She did not know what to do = She did not know what she should do. (He does not know what he should do).
B. Noun clauses beginning with Whether / if
Whether can be followed by OR / NOT can not; meaning of the sentence is usually the same although the OR / NOT is not mentioned (it depends on the context of the sentence).
Example:
1.      Whether I am not sure she is coming or not = I am not sure Whether or not she is coming = I am not sure Whether she is coming. (I'm not sure whether he will come or not).

C. Noun clauses beginning with that / the fact that
Here, that means that, while the fact that means the fact that. Whereas, that in    adjective clauses mean that.
example:
1.       That she has had a PhD degree at the age of 20 surprises a lot of people = It surprises a lot of people that she has had a PhD degree at the age of 20..

Example Problem:
1.      The teacher heard who answered the question.
analysis:
          The first sentence "The teacher heard" is true because the subject teacher and heard verbnya. The second sentence "Who answered the phoned" is also true because who serves as a subject and answered as verbnya. Who at the same time also serves as connetor.
          So the above sentence is correct.
2.      I do not understand it went wrong.
Analysis:
         The first sentence "I do not understand" is correct because I do not understand the subject and verb. The second sentence "it went wrong" is wrong because there is no connector at once subject.
         correct sentence should be: I do not understand what went wrong.What subject and also serves as a connector, while his went as a verb.
3.      Of the three movies, I can not decide is the best roomates.
Analysis:
          In the first sentence, I can not decide as Subject and as a verb. In the second sentence, roomates as well as the subject and the connector is a verb.
4.      She did not remember who in her class.
Analysis:
          In the first sentence, as She did not remember the subject and the verb. Dikalimat second, who as a connector and also subject but no verb.
          correct sentence should ................. who was in her class.
5.      No one is sure what did it happen in front of the building.
Analysis:
         The first sentence is correct because No one is subject and is is a verb, but the second sentence is wrong because there was and it did. Did and it seharusnay in delete and verb "happen" became form of yesteryear "happened".
          So the correct sentence should be: ....... what happened in front of the building.